These upper level courses often have prerequisites, and are available to graduate students and advanced undergraduates.

ENT 402W BIOLOGY OF ANIMAL PARASITE (3) An introduction to animal parasitology. Emphasis placed on host/parasite interactions, parasites of zoonotic importance, control programs and taxonomy.

ENT 410 INSECT STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION (3) Integrated physiology and anatomy of insects; emphasis on unique adaptations, genetic regulation of development, insects as model systems, environmental physiology.

ENT 419W PESTICIDE SCIENCE (3) This interdisciplinary course explores the basic science of pesticides from biology, chemistry, and ecology perspectives. Students will learn the basic science of pesticides and their impacts on the environment. The first class meeting each week will be given in lecture format. Lectures will cover topics including an introduction to pesticides and integrated pest management (IPM), pesticide exposure and evaluation of toxicity, chemical classification of pesticides and their modes of action, toxicodynamics, pesticide residue, pesticide resistance, the major classes of synthetic pesticides and biopesticides, genetic engineering of pest resistant crops, environmental toxicology and pesticide regulation. The second class meeting each week will be an active learning paper discussion designed to develop their discussion and critical thinking abilities. Students will read classic and/or current literature papers relevant to that week's lecture. Starting from the first week. students will begin work on their class project by choosing their topic of interest associated with pesticides (due on the third week), writing a literature review paper (with clear guidance step by step), and presenting their review in class at the end of the semester (last 2 weeks or more time if enrolled student number is larger than 12), design to help students develop their oral and written communication skills.

ENT 432 INSECT BIODIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION - Fall (4) This course is designed to teach graduate students about insect taxonomy, evolutionary relationships, collection and preservation techniques, morphology, and natural history. We'll focus mostly on adult forms and emphasize insects found in Pennsylvania. In the lab, students will learn how to handle specimens, how use diagnostic keys, and how identify insects by sight. Collection techniques will be honed during multiple field trips.

(3) Ecological basis for pest management; principles underlying selected management tactics including application and efficacy; development of pest management systems. Prerequisite: 6 credits of life sciences

ENT 495 ENTOMOLOGY INTERNSHIP (1-18) Supervised non-group instruction, including field experiences, practica, or internships. Written and oral critique of

ENT 496 INDEPENDENT STUDIES (1-18) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.

ENT 497 SPECIAL TOPICS (1-9) Creative projects, including research and design, which are supervised on an individual basis and which fall outside the scope of formal courses.