Erika T. Machtinger, Ph.D.

Erika T. Machtinger, Ph.D.

  • Associate Professor of Entomology
4 Chemical Ecology Laboratory
University Park, PA 16802

Areas of Expertise

  • Veterinary Entomology
  • Tick ecology and control
  • Filth fly management and behavior
  • Wildlife entomology
  • Arthropod behavior


  • Postdoctoral Research Associate, USDA, ARS
  • Ph.D., Entomology, University of Florida
  • M. S., Entomology, University of Florida
  • B. S., Wildlife Conservation and Ecology, University of Delaware


Machtinger Lab Website

Machtinger Lab Twitter

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Google Scholar

Graduate Students

Jessica Brown (Ph.D. student, Ecology)

Jesse Evans (MSc student, Entomology)

Research Support

Arash Maleki (Research Technologist)

Kylie Green (Research Technologist) 

Zoey Cole (Research Associate) 

McKinley Morris (Research Associate)


The mission of the Veterinary Entomology Laboratory is to investigate the ecological relationships between vertebrates and their ectoparasites and other arthropod pests to facilitate the development of control methods and integrated pest management strategies. We don't study specific taxa or phenomena but rather problems associated with non-human vertebrates. Of particular interest are filth flies affecting livestock, poultry, and equids and ticks and tick-borne disease ecology.


Parasitic control strategies: Bioactive crops and nutrition, Ishaq, Kashif, Ahmad, Tanveer, Rajput, Mahvish, Maqbool, Mahvish, Gupta, Abhishek, Imran, Muhammad, Machtinger, Erika T., 2023

Selection for, and characterization of, fluralaner resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, Norris, Rachel H., Baker, Oshneil S., Burgess, Edwin R., Tarone, Aaron, Gerry, Alec, Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T., Hinkle, Nancy C., Olds, Cassandra, Boxler, David, Wise, Kenneth L., Machtinger, Erika T., Scott, Jeffrey G., 2023

Topical permethrin may increase blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) repellency but is associated with cutaneous irritation in horses
American Journal of Veterinary Research, Poh, Karen C., Cole, Zoey T., Smarsh, Danielle N., Springer, Hayley R., Kelly, Kathleen, Kenny, Laura B., Machtinger, Erika T., 2023

Distribution of Biting Flies Associated with Swine Production Facilities in the Southeastern United States
Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, Machtinger, Erika T., Burgess, Edwin R., Brown, Jessica E., 2023

Tissue-damaging marking methods do not affect tick burdens on field captured Peromyscus spp.
Wildlife Society Bulletin, Roberts, Chloe E., Burgess, Edwin R., Miller, Taylor M., Wise, Anna Marie, Dickerson, Cera J., Skvarla, Michael J., Li, Andrew Y., Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

Filth Fly Parasitoid (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) Monitoring Techniques and Species Composition in Poultry Layer Facilities
Journal of Medical Entomology, Pagac, Alexandra A., Geden, Christopher J., Burgess, Edwin R., Riggs, Montana R., Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

Tick Control in a Connected World: Challenges, Solutions, and Public Policy from a United States Border Perspective
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Tiffin, Hannah S., Rajotte, Edwin George, Sakamoto, Joyce Megumi, Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

Human Tick Removal Kit, Machtinger, Erika, 2022

Evaluation of tick control tube month of placement and modifications to increase visitation by small mammals
Ecosphere, Green, Kylie D., Tiffin, Hannah S., Brown, Jessica E., Burgess, Edwin R., Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

Human Tick ID Card, Machtinger, Erika, 2022

Tick and Mosquito Repellent Guide and Card, Machtinger, Erika, 2022

Protecting Horses from Horse and Deer Fly Bites, Machtinger, Erika, 2022

High Prevalence of Antibodies against Canine Parvovirus and Canine Distemper Virus among Coyotes and Foxes from Pennsylvania: Implications for the Intersection of Companion Animals and Wildlife
Microbiology spectrum, Kimpston, Caellaigh N., Hatke, Amanda L., Castelli, Benjamin, Otto, Nathan, Tiffin, Hannah S., Machtinger, Erika T., Brown, Justin D., van Why, Kyle R., Marconi, Richard T., 2022

Pests and Parasites of Horses, Machtinger, Erika, Weeks, Emma, Geden, Christopher, Lacher, Erika, 2022

Patterns of deer ked (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and tick (Ixodida: Ixodidae) infestation on white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the eastern United States
Parasites and Vectors, Poh, Karen C., Evans, Jesse R., Skvarla, Michael, Hickling, Graham, Kent, Cody M., Olafson, Pia U., Mullinax, J., Machtinger, E, Hickling, Graham J., Mullinax, Jennifer M., Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

An Exploratory Study on the Microbiome of Northern and Southern Populations of Ixodes scapularis Ticks Predicts Changes and Unique Bacterial Interactions
Pathogens, Kumar, Deepak, Downs, Latoyia P., Adegoke, Abdulsalam, Machtinger, Erika, Oggenfuss, Kelly, Ostfeld, Richard S., Embers, Monica, Karim, Shahid, 2022

A Call for the Development of a Sustainable Pest Management Program for the Economically Important Pest Flies of Livestock: A Beef Cattle Perspective
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Smith, K. V., Delong, K. L., Boyer, C. N., Thompson, J. M., Lenhart, S. M., Strickland, W. C., Burgess, E. R., Tian, Y., Talley, J., Machtinger, E. T., Trout Fryxell, R. T., 2022

Small Mammal Use of Cotton in Tick Control Tubes Is Dependent on the Month of Use but Independent of Odor or Cotton Size
Ecosphere, Green, Kylie, Tiffin, Hannah, Brown, Jessica, Burgess, IV, Edwin, Machtinger, Erika, 2022

Can restoration of fire-dependent ecosystems reduce ticks and tick-borne disease prevalence in the eastern United States?
Ecological Applications, Gallagher, Michael, Kreye, Jesse, Machtinger, Erika, Everland, Alexis, Schmidt, Nathan, Schmidt, Nathaniel, Everland, A, Skowronski, N, 2022

Limited detection of shared zoonotic pathogens in deer keds and blacklegged ticks co-parasitizing white-tailed deer in the eastern United States
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Olafson, Pia Untalan, Poh, Karen C., Evans, Jesse R., Skvarla, Michael J., Machtinger, Erika T., 2022

Landscape distribution and abundance of animal-associated adult filth flies on commercial swine facilities in North Carolina, US
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Machtinger, E. T., Brown, J. E., Burgess, E. R., 2021

Tick abundance and life-stage segregation on the American black bear (Ursus americanus)
International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Tiffin, Hannah, Skvarla, Michael, Machtinger, Erika T., 2021

Spatial Heterogeneity of Sympatric Tick Species and Tick-Borne Pathogens Emphasizes the Need for Surveillance for Effective Tick Control
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Machtinger, Erika T., Nadolny, Robyn M., Vinyard, Bryan T., Eisen, Lars, Hojgaard, Andrias, Haynes, Scott A., Bowman, Loretta, Casal, Cory, Li, Andrew Y., 2021

The Keds Are Alright: Community Collection of Ticks (Ixodida: Ixodidae) and Keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) from Hunter-Harvested Deer
Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Evans, Jesse Ray, Poh, Karen C., Skvarla, Michael, Machtinger, Erika T., 2021

Sudden Mortality in Captive White-Tailed Deer with Atypical Infestation of Winter Tick
Journal of Medical Entomology, MacHtinger, Erika T., Springer, Hayley R., Brown, Jessica E., Olafson, Pia U., 2021

Surveillance of Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens in Suburban Natural Habitats of Central Maryland
Journal of Medical Entomology, Milholland, Matthew T., Eisen, Lars, Nadolny, Robyn M., Hojgaard, Andrias, Machtinger, Erika T., Mullinax, Jennifer M., Li, Andrew Y., 2021

Pathogen Coinfections Harbored by Adult italic toggle="yes"Ixodes scapularis from White-Tailed Deer Compared with Questing Adults across Sites in Maryland, USA
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Milholland, Matthew T., Xu, Guang, Rich, Stephen M., MacHtinger, Erika T., Mullinax, Jennifer M., Li, Andrew Y., 2021

An Extension of Their Work: Extension's Role in Vector-Borne Disease Education
American Entomologist, Poh, Karen C., MacHtinger, Erika T., 2021

Tales from the Field: Training Undergraduate Researchers for Fieldwork
American Entomologist, Poh, Karen, Tiffin, Hannah, Evans, Jesse, Brown, Jessica, Skvarla, Michael, Machtinger, Erika, 2021

Tick Shower Hanger, Machtinger, Erika, Tejada de Rivero, Maria, 2021

Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) - Biology, Management, and Future Research Directions
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Brewer, Gary J., Boxler, Dave J., Domingues, Luisa D., Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T., Holderman, Chris, Loftin, Kelly M., Machtinger, Erika, Smythe, Brandon, Talley, Justin L., Watson, Wes, 2021

House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae): Biology, Pest Status, Current Management Prospects, and Research Needs
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Geden, C. J., Nayduch, D., Scott, J. G., Burgess, E. R., Gerry, A. C., Kaufman, P. E., Thomson, J., Pickens, V., Machtinger, E. T., 2021

Filth Fly Impacts to Animal Production in the United States and Associated Research and Extension Needs
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Machtinger, Erika T., Gerry, Alec C., Murillo, Amy C., Talley, Justin L., 2021

Corrigendum: Horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae)-Biology, management, and future research directions (Journal of Integrated Pest Management (2021) DOI: 10.1093/jipm/pmab019)
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Brewer, Gary J., Boxler, Dave J., Domingues, Luísa N., Trout Fryxell, Rebecca T., Holderman, Chris, Loftin, Kelly M., Machtinger, Erika, Smythe, Brandon, Talley, Justin L., Watson, Wes, 2021

First Canadian Record and Additional New State Records for North American Deer Keds (Diptera: Hippoboscidae: Lipoptena cervi (Linnaeus) and L. mazamae Rondani)
Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, Skvarla, M, Trout-Fryxell, Rebecca, Butler, R, Jones, C, Burrell, M, Bacca, S, Poh, Karen, Evans, Jesse, Machtinger, Erika, 2021

Managing Winter Tick, Dermacentor albipictus, on White-tailed Deer Farms and Hunting Preserves, Springer, Hayley, Machtinger, Erika, Springer, H, Brown, Jessica, 2021

Toxicity of fluralaner, a companion animal insecticide, relative to industry-leading agricultural insecticides against resistant and susceptible strains of filth flies
Scientific Reports, Burgess, Edwin R., Geden, Christopher J., Lohmeyer, Kimberly H., King, B. H., Machtinger, Erika T., Scott, Jeffrey G., 2020

Special collection: Protocols in medical and veterinary entomology
Journal of Insect Science, Machtinger, Erika T., Poh, Karen C., 2020

A tissue digestion protocol for measuring Sarcoptes scabiei (astigmata: Sarcoptidae) density in skin biopsies
Journal of Insect Science, Tiffin, Hannah S., Cockerill, Robert, Brown, Justin D., Machtinger, Erika T., 2020

Trapping white-tailed deer (artiodactyla: cervidae) in suburbia for study of tick-host interaction
Journal of Insect Science, Roden-Reynolds, Patrick, Machtinger, Erika T., Li, Andrew Y., Mullinax, Jennifer M., 2020

Choice of laboratory tissue homogenizers matters when recovering nucleic acid from medically important ticks
Journal of Medical Entomology, Jones, Amanda M., Van De Wyngaerde, Marshall T., Machtinger, Erika T., Rajotte, Edwin G., Baker, Thomas C., 2020

Tick tubes reduce blacklegged tick burdens on white-footed mice in Pennsylvania, USA
Journal of Applied Entomology, Brown, Jessica E., Miller, Taylor M., Machtinger, Erika T., 2020

Host distribution and pathogen infection of fleas (Siphonaptera) recovered from small mammals in Pennsylvania
Journal of Vector Ecology, Fedele, Kaila, Poh, Karen C., Brown, Jessica E., Jones, Amanda, Durden, Lance A., Tiffin, Hannah S., Pagac, Alexandra, Li, Andrew Y., Machtinger, Erika T., 2020

Behavioral inhibition of the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial equine fly repellents
Journal of Economic Entomology, Tuorinsky, Elizabeth V., Machtinger, Erika T., 2020

Evaluation of filth fly species composition and abundance using two monitoring methods in swine confinement housing
Journal of Medical Entomology, MacHtinger, Erika T., Burgess, Edwin R., 2020

Livestock Pests
Forensic Entomology: International Dimensions and Frontiers, Talley, Justin, Machtinger, Erika, 2020

Tick Bite Risk and Tick-Borne Disease Perceptions of School District Administrators in the Mid-Atlantic United States
Journal of School Health, Machtinger, Erika T., Li, Andrew Y., Liu, Yifen, 2019

Bed Bugs in Poultry Facilities: Identification, Scouting, and Control Options, Machtinger, Erika, Martin, Gregory, 2019

Protecting Livestock Against Ticks in Pennsylvania, Machtinger, Erika, Springer, Hayley, 2019

Common Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases in Pennsylvania, Machtinger, Erika, 2019

Lesser Mealworm Beetles in Poultry and Game Bird Facilities, Machtinger, Erika, Lhamon, E, 2019

Protecting Companion Animals Against Ticks in Pennsylvania, Machtinger, E, Springer, H, Springer, Hayley, Machtinger, Erika, 2019

Development of nontarget wildlife exclusion devices for small mammal trap protection
Wildlife Society Bulletin, Roden-Reynolds, Patrick, Hummell, Grace, Machtinger, Erika T., Li, Andrew Y., 2018

Lyme Disease, Machtinger, Erika, 2018

Working with Nature to Control Nature, Stewart, Karla, Machtinger, Erika, 2018

Repellencies and toxicities of five ant-derived defensive compounds against the lone star tick, amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)
Applied Entomology and Zoology, Machtinger, Erika T., Yang, Xiaolong, Chen, Jian, Li, Andrew Y., 2018

Tracking another pest. Better understanding deer keds and their risks
Pennsylvania Game News, Skvarla, Michael, Machtinger, E, 2018

Biological Control of Livestock Pests: Entomopathogens, Weeks, Emma, Geden, Christopher, Machtinger, Erika, Leemon, Diana, Geden, Christopher, 2018

Deer Keds, Skvarla, Michale, Machtinger, Erika, 2018

Asian Longhorned Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Machtinger, E, Skvarla, Michael, 2018

Filth Fly Control on Equine Farms, Machtinger, Erika, 2018

Ticks and Tick-Borne Disease, Machtinger, Erika, 2018

Biological control of livestock pests: Entomopathogens, Weeks, Emma N.I., Machtinger, Erika T., Leemon, Diana, Geden, Christopher J., 2018

Biological control with parasitoids, Machtinger, Erika T., Geden, Christopher J., 2018

Effects of four commercial fungal formulations on mortality and sporulation in house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans)
Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Weeks, E. N.I., Machtinger, E. T., Gezan, S. A., Kaufman, P. E., Geden, C. J., 2017

Manure preferences and postemergence learning of two filth fly parasitoids, spalangia cameroni and muscidifurax raptor (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae)
PLoS One, Taylor, Caitlin E., Machtinger, Erika T., Geden, Christopher J., Kramer, Matthew, 2016

House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait
Biocontrol Science and Technology, Machtinger, E. T., Weeks, E. N.I., Geden, C. J., Kaufman, P. E., 2016

Oviposition deterrence and immature survival of filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products
Journal of Insect Science, Machtinger, E. T., Weeks, E. N.I., Geden, C. J., 2016

Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities
Journal of Integrated Pest Management, Machtinger, Erika T., Geden, Christopher J., Kaufman, Phillip E., House, Amanda M., 2015

Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities
Journal of Medical Entomology, Machtinger, E. T., Geden, C. J., Hogsette, J. A., Leppla, N. C., 2014

Host location by Spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in equine associated substrates
Biological Control, Machtinger, Erika T., Geden, Christopher J., 2013

Pest Management Perceptions and Practices for Equine Farms in North and Central Florida, Machtinger, Erika, Leppla, Norman, Sanders, Cindy, 2013