The Center for Pollinator Research is committed to developing crop-specific best management practices guidelines for "Integrated Pollinator and Pest Management" (IPPM).

We are increasingly aware that some present-day agricultural practices are detrimental to pollinators. Instead of eliminating these practices, which could decrease agricultural efficiency, these practices can be adjusted to decrease pollinator harm while maintaining agricultural efficiency. By detailing pesticide effects through research, and then adjusting integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations to incorporate this knowledge, growers can maintain crop protection from pests as well as protect pollinator health. This IPPM approach has already been successfully applied to orchard crops in the Northeast, and this program can be used as a model for other commodity groups.

The recommendation for developing and implementing an IPPM approach was the outcome of a workshop of scientists, stakeholders, and government representatives held at the 2013 International Pollinator Conference at Penn State. We are working together with the Xerces Society and the Penn State Horticulture Extension Team to develop these approaches and disseminate this information to extension educators and growers."


A fruitful new partnership for farmers and pollinators
Best Management Practices for Pollination of Crops
How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides (pdf)
Wild Pollinators of Eastern Apple Orchards (pdf)
Overview of IPPM practices (pptx)
Overview of IPPM approach (pdf)
Integrated Crop Pollination for Squashes, Pumpkins and Gourds (pdf)
Pennsylvania Apple Pollination (pdf)
The Integrated Crop Pollination Project
Penn State Tree Fruit Production Guide
Native Bees prove their worth (pdf)
Which ornamental plants attract the most pollinators?

Fact Sheet: Pennsylvania Pumpkin Pollination "Integrated Crop Pollination: Combining Strategies to Improve Pollination"

2017 Bee Health Webinar Series: Ensuring Crop Pollination in US Specialty Crops
This webinar series will provide an overview of pollination requirements and strategies to ensure pollination of different specialty crops.

Wyman's of Maine: 2017 Sustainability Report (pdf)

Relevant Research Publications

Douglas, M. R., J. R. Rohr, and J. F. Tooker. Neonicotinoid insecticide travels through a soil food chain, disrupting biological control of non-target pests and decreasing soybean yield.Journal of Applied Ecology, in press. (Published online in Early View of Journal of Applied Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.12372; and read a related post in the blog of the Journal of Applied Ecology.)

Biddinger, D.J. and E.G. Rajotte. "Integrated pest and pollinator management - adding a new dimension to an accepted paradigm" Current Opinion in Insect Science. Volume 10, August 2015, Pages 204-209 (pdf)

Zhu, W., Schmehl, D.R., Mullin, C.A., Frazier, J.L. "Four common pesticides, their mixtures and a formulation solvent in the hive environment have high oral toxicity to honey bee larvae" PLoS One. 9(1):e77547 (2014) (PSU news story)

Biddinger, D.J., Robertson, J.L., Mullin, C., Frazier, J., Ashcraft, S.A., Rajotte, E.G., Joshi, N.K., Vaughn, M. "Comparative toxicities and synergism of apple orchard pesticides to Apis mellifera (L.) and Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski)" PLoS One. 8(9):e72587 (2013).

Nunes, F.M.F., Silva, A., Barchuk, A.R., Bomtorin, A.D., Grozinger, C.M. and Z.L.P. Simoes. "Non-target effects of double-stranded RNA constructs used in honey bee RNAi assays" Insects 4(1): 90-103 (2013).

Cardoza, Y.J., Harris, G.K. and C.M. Grozinger. "Effects of soil quality enhancement on pollinator-plant interactions" Psyche 2012: 581458, 8p (2012). doi:10.1155/2012/581458 (link)

Ciarlo, T.J., Mullin, C.A., Frazier, J.L., and D.R. Schmehl. "Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants" PLoS ONE 7: 1-12 e40848 (2012). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040848 (link)

Johnson, R. M., Ellis, M. D., Mullin, C. A., and M. Frazier. "Pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the United States". Honey Bee Colony Health - Challenges and Sustainable Solutions (D. Sammataro, and J. A. Yoder, Eds.), pp. 145-160 (2012). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Biddinger, D. J., H. Ngugi, J. Frazier, M. Frazier, T. Leslie, and L. R. Donovall. 2010. Development of the mason bee, Osmia cornifrons, as and alternative pollinator to honey bees and as a targeted delivery system for biological control agents in the management of fire blight. Penn Fruit News, vol. 90 (2): 35-44. (pdf)

Mullin,C., Frazier, M., Frazier J., Ashcraft S., Simonds, R., vanEngelsdorp, D., Pettis, J. "High Levels of Miticides and Agrochemicals in North American Apiaries: Implications for Honey Bee Health" PLoS ONE 5(3): e9754 (2010). (pdf)

Biddinger, D. J., H. Ngugi, & J. Frazier. 2009. Development of the Mason Bee, Osmia cornifrons, as a Targeted Delivery System for Biocontrol Agents in the Management of Fire Blight. Penn Fruit News, vol. 89 (2): 95-100. (pdf)

Biddinger, D., J. Frazier, M. Frazier, E. Rajotte, L. Donovall, and T. Leslie. 2009. Solitary bees as alternative pollinators in Pennsylvania fruit crops. Penn Fruit News, vol. 89 (2): 84-94. (pdf)