Andrew (Sandy) Liebhold

  • Adjunct Professor
Andrew (Sandy) Liebhold
Northern Research Station
Forestry Sciences Laboratory.
USDA Forest Service
180 Canfield St.

Morgantown, WV 26505
Work Phone: 304-285-1512


  1. Ph.D., University of California at Berkeley, Entomology (1984).
  2. B.S., Allegheny College, Biology (1978).

Career Summary:

His research focuses on invasion biology and various aspects of the population biology and landscape ecology of forest insects. He was a postdoctoral at the University of Massachusetts from 1984-1988 and has been with the Northeastern Research Station since 1988. He was a visiting scientist at the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Morioka, Japan in 1994 a research associate, National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Univ. Calif., Santa Barbara in 1997 and 1999 and visiting scientist at the the Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sevilla, Spain in 2002. Liebhold was given the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station Director's award for research excellence in 1994 and the Forest Service National Forest Insect and Disease Research Award in 1995.

Specific Experience:

  • May 1984- March, 1988: Postdoctoral Research Associate: Department of Entomology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • 1998-present: Adjunct Faculty, Dept. Geology & Geography, West Virginia Univ.
  • 2003-present: Adjunct Faculty, Dept. of Entomology, Pennsylvania State Univ.
  • 2000 - present: web moderator, IUFRO Division 7, "Forest Health"
  • March, 1988 - present: Research Entomologist USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Morgantown, WV.

Civic and Professional Affiliations:

  • Associate Editor, Population Ecology
  • Leader, Research Group 7.03.0, "Forest Entomology," International Union of Forestry Research Organizations

Selected Publications:

Yamanaka, T. and A.M. Liebhold. Spatially implicit approaches to understanding the manipulation of mating success for insect invasion management. Population Ecology 51: 427-444

Bogich, T.L., A.M. Liebhold, and K. Shea. 2008. To sample or eradicate? A cost minimization model for monitoring and managing an invasive species Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 1134–1142

Liebhold, A.M., P.C. Tobin. 2008. Population Ecology of Insect Invasions and Their Management. Annual Review of Entomology 53:387–408

Esper, J., U. Buntgen, David C. Frank, Daniel Nievergelt and A. Liebhold. 2007. 1200 years of regular outbreaks in alpine insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274: 671–679

Johnson, D.M., O.N. Bjørnstad , and A.M. Liebhold. 2004. Landscape geometry and traveling waves in the larch budmoth. Ecology Letters 7: 967-974

Liebhold, A.M., W.D. Koenig and O.N. Bjørnstad . 2004. Spatial Synchrony in Population Dynamics. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 35:467-90

Liebhold, A., V. Sork, M. Peltonen, W. Koenig, O. Bjørnstad , R. Westfall, J. Elkinton, J. Knops. 2004. Within-population spatial synchrony in mast seeding of North American oaks. Oikos 104: 156-164

Koenig, W.D. and A.M. Liebhold. Regional impacts of periodical cicadas on oak radial increment. Can. J. For. Res. 33: 1084-1089.

Liebhold, A.M. and J. Bascompte. 2003. The allee effect, stochastic dynamics and the eradication of alien species. Ecology Letters 6: 133-140.

Sharov, A.A., D.Leonard, A.M. Liebhold, and N.S. Clemens. (2002) Evaluation of Preventive Treatments in Low-Density Gypsy Moth Populations. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 1205-1215.

Peltonen, M., A.M. Liebhold, O.N. Bjørnstad and D.W. Williams. 2002. Spatial Synchrony in Forest Insect Outbreaks: Roles of Regional Stochasticity and Dispersal. Ecology 83: 3120-3129.

Bjørnstad , O.N. , M. Peltonen, A.M. Liebhold, W.Baltensweiler. 2002. Waves of Larch Budmoth Outbreaks in the European Alps. Science 298: 1020-1023.

Liebhold, A., J. Elkinton, D. Williams, R.-M. Muzika. 2000. What causes outbreaks of the gypsy moth in North America? Popul. Ecol. 42: 257-266.

Sharov, A.A. and A.M. Liebhold. 1998. Bioeconomics of managing the spread of exotic pest species with barrier zones. Ecol. Appl. 8: 833-845.

Liebhold, A.M., W.L. Macdonald, D.Bergdahl, and V.C. Mastro. 1995. Invasion by Exotic Forest Pests: A Threat to Forest Ecosystems. Forest Science Monographs 30. 49 p.