Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and Plant Health Care (PHC)
Integrated pest management (IPM)
IPM is a pest population management system that utilizes all suitable techniques (biorational, chemical, cultural, fertilization, irrigation, monitoring with sex pheromone traps, resistant plant varieties, etc.) and information to reduce or manipulate pest populations that are maintained at tolerable levels (meaning a few pests will still be around) while providing protection against hazards to humans, domestic animals and earth's environment.
Plant health care (PHC)
PHC is defined as a process of scheduled preventative maintenance based on monitoring and use of cultural and chemical tactics, to enhance tree vitality. The plant and its requirements become the central focus of our activities, rather than responding to symptoms caused by pest presence, physical agents, or nutritional deficiencies. A plant health care practice addresses the basic causes of the reduction in plant health and provides corrective measures to promote plant health.
List of Text references on these subjects:
- Ball, J. 1986. Public perception of an integrated pest management program. J. Aboric. 12: 135-14
- Ball, J.; 1987. Efficient monitoring for an urban IPM program. J. Aboric. 13: 175-177.
- Hermes, D. A., R. C. Akers, and D. G. Nielsen. 1984. The ornamental landscape as an ecosystem: implications for pest management. J. Arboric. 10: 303-307.
- Hock, W. 1984. IPM- is it for the arborist? J. Arboric. 10: 1-3.
- Holmes, J. J. and J. A. Davidson. 1984. Integrated pest management for arborists: implementation of a pilot program. J. Arboric. 10: 65-70.
- Koehler, C. S. 1987. Symptomatology in the instruction of landscape ornamentals entomology. J. Arboric.13: 78-80.
- Koehler, C. S., M. J. Raupp, E. Dutky, and J. A. Davidson.1985. Standards for a commercial arboriculture IPM program. J. Arboric. 11: 293-295.
- Leslie, A. R. and R. L. Metcalf. 1989. Integrated pest management for turfgrass and ornamentals. EPA, Office of Pesticide Programs, Field Operations Div., Washington, D. C., 337 pp.
- Nielsen, D. G. 1983. Arborists and insect control: past, present, and future. J. Arboric. 9: 12-16.
- Nielsen, D. G. 1986. Planning and implementing a tree health care practice. J. Arboric. 12: 265-268.
- Olkowski, W. and A. Zhang. 1987. Update: agroforestry and IPM-issues and frontiers. The IPM Practitioner 9: 1-8.
- Raupp, M. J. 1985. Monitoring: an essential factor to managing pests of landscape trees and shrubs. J. Arboric. 11:349-355.
- Raupp, M. J. and R. M. Noland. 1984. Implementing landscape plant management programs in institutional and residential settings. J. Arboric. 10: 161-169.
- Raupp, M. J., J. A. Davidson, J. J. Holmes, and J. Lee Hellman. 1985. The concept of key plants in integrated pest management for landscapes. J. Arboric. 11: 317-322.
- Raupp, M. J., J. A. Davidson, C. S. Koehler, C. S. Sadof, and K. Reichelderfer. 1988. Decisioning-making considerations for aesthetic damage caused by pests. Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 34: 27-32.
- Reardon, R., M. McManus, D. Kolodny-Hirsch, R. Tichenor, M. Raupp, C. Schwalbe, R. Webb, and P. Meckley. 1987. Development and implementation of a gypsy moth integrated pest management program. J. Arboric. 13: 209-216.
- Sherald, J. L., and C. L. J. DiSalvo. 1987. Integrated pest management in the national capital region of the national park service. J. Arboric. 13: 229-235.
- Walker, J. T. 1981. A need for urban IPM. J. Arboric. 7: 204-207.