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Possible Causes of Injury to Plants

Abiotic Environment

Human-controlled

  • Industrial wastes
  • Air pollution
  • Phytotoxicity (pesticides)
  • Salt (chemical) accumulations
  • Concrete and macadam
  • Soil compaction
  • Changes in soil level
  • Changes in groundwater level
  • Mechanical injury by auto, machinery, and vandalism

Natural

  • Mineral deficiencies
  • Frost and freeze
  • Sun scorch
  • Drought
  • Lightning
  • Wind
  • Hail
  • Blowing sand
  • Flood

Biotic Environment

Animal

  • Insects
  • Mites
  • Nematodes
  • Millipedes
  • Slugs and snails
  • Birds (woodpeckers)
  • Rabbits, mice, moles and other rodents
  • Dogs
  • Humans

Plants

  • Viruses
  • Phytoplasmas
  • Bacteria
  • Rickettsialike organisms
  • Fungi
  • Dodder
  • Mistletoe
  • Algae
  • Moss
  • Weeds
  • Strangling vines
  • Strangling roots